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Nuclei Print
   
checked.gif For Proton and Helium results go to Publication Science 332, 69 (2011)  read more
checked.gif For H and He isotope results go to Publication Astrophysical Journal - ApJ 818 68 (2016)
checked.gif For Boron and Carbon results go to Publication Astrophysical Journal - ApJ 791 93 (2014)



 
Proton and helium absolute fluxes measured by PAMELA above 1 GeV per nucleon, compared with a few of the previous measurements
Proton and helium absolute fluxes
in GeV/n
Proton (top data set) and helium (bottom data set) fluxes measured by PAMELA in the rigidity range 1 GV to 1.2 TV. The pink shaded areas represent the estimated systematic uncertainty. The lines represent the fit with a single power law and the GALPROP and Zatsepin models
Proton and helium absolute fluxes in GV
Ratio of the flux between proton and helium data of PAMELA versus rigidity. The gray shaded area represents the estimated systematic uncertainty.  Lines show the fit using a single power law and the GALPROP  and Zatsepin models with the original values of the paper fitted to the data
Proton to helium flux ratio in GV
Proton and helium spectra. The gray shaded area represents the estimated systematic uncertainty, the pink shaded area represents the contribution  due to tracker alignment. The green lines represent fits with a single power law in the rigidity range 30 to 240 GV. The red curves represent the fit  with a  rigidity-dependent power law (30 to 240 GV) and with a single power law above 240 GV
Proton and helium spectra in GV
Absolute fluxes of hydrogen isotopes
Absolute fluxes of hydrogen isotopes
Absolute fluxes of helium isotopes
Absolute fluxes of helium isotopes
Isotopic ratio 2H/1H
Isotopic ratio 2H/1H
Isotopic ratio 3He/4He
Isotopic ratio 3He/4He
Isotopic ratio 2H/4He ratio
Isotopic ratio 2H/4He 
Carbon and Boron energy spectra
Carbon and Boron energy spectrum
Boron to Carbon ratio
Boron to Carbon ratio
 

  

 

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Edited by Vincenzo Buttaro